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WELCOME TO THE ENDLESS SPACE OF FREE-FLIGHT
Whether you are a
beginner, a modeller returning after a long break, or a radio flyer discovering
the joys of no-control, you will find something in the SAMS Handbook and Catalogue
to help. SAMS have over 29 years experience in the model business, the last
22 being exclusively in the free flight field.
The SAMS Catalogue is the free-flight enthusiast's bible. Here, in the Handbook section, is a series of articles written by experienced modellers giving the basic how-to's and hopefully answering some of the questions we are most often asked. We hope this Handbook will cover most of the basics, however, as always, if there is any information or advice you need and can't find here, get in touch. If we don't know the answer, then we probably know someone who does.
Kits We have a huge range for both indoor and outdoor. In Scale, Duration, Sport and Vintage. From the latest laser or CNC cut, to traditional printwood stick and tissue, or even ARTF ( almost ) and RTF ( completely ready to fly ).
Power We have rubber in an enormous number of different widths. We have the stunning range of Gasparin Co2 motors ( Section F) - from tiny hand made jewels and stunning multi-cylinder versions to the completely practical sized flying range designed for every day use. We have the amazing Rapier range of jet motors and the excellent KP electric units
Plans The collection extends to over a thousand - from the absurdly simple to the frighteningly complicated. (Section K) Browse our range of both conventional and unusual designs, from fixed wing to helicopters to ornithopters.
A LITTLE BIT ABOUT OURSELVES
Our speciality is Free Flight Aeromodelling. Some say we are the largest in this field in Europe - we couldn't possibly comment!
Our aim is to supply the widest range of top quality free flight model aeroplane products to the modeller - and to do it direct by MAIL ORDER.
By offering goods from all the major British suppliers and from some very specialist small manufacturers, as well as importing a huge range of products from many parts of the world, we have become THE-ONE-STOP-MODEL-SHOP for free flight modellers everywhere.
Our customer base is literally world wide and people shop with us by phone, by fax, by post (our stamp collection is simply stunning) and by e-mail.
PLEASE NOTE: Before you leap into your car to come and see us - don't - we are not a showroom or a shop but a mail order company with a busy workshop. HOWEVER, We do welcome visitors by appointment. RING FIRST (01763 287606) to arrange a time and get directions, our premises are remote - directions are vital.
CATCH US AT SOME VERY
As a Mail Order company we understand your frustration at not being able to SEE the stock. Well, here's your opportunity. You will find us at the following events, together with a huge selection of our stock which you can inspect and buy on the spot.
Why not join us at one our own INDOOR FUN FLY events. Held at Watford Leisure Centre twice a year (Spring and Autumn), these have become a 'Must' for many of our customers and friends. Incredible fun and great value for money, they are an all comers get together and fly-in. There are two excellent indoor flying days each year at Impington ( near Cambridge ) - highly recommended. Ring for details.
You will find us at some of the outdoor summer events at Old Warden. An Aeromodellers Paradise, with separate fields for Free Flight, Control Line, and R/C. These are fun days out for all the family on one of Englands most famous grass aerodromes. AND you get to browse to your hearts content round the very rare Shuttleworth Collection of vintage aircraft and vehicles. Come, meet friends, make friends - its a great day out!
For dates and directions, give us a ring, look in the British Aeromodelling press or check out our web site diary page
Now, that's enough about us . . . . .the handbook starts here
OFF TO A FLYING START but FIRST THINGS FIRST by Kevin Wallace
'I want to build a model aeroplane. Where do I start?'
Before doing anything first decide what type of model; several factors will govern this. Ask youself: Where can I fly? What tools do I need? How skilled am I? (Have you done any modelling before, are you a beginner?)
You will need certain basic tools.
A good sharp scalpel
or modelling knife
Pair of flat nosed pliers
Pair of thin nosed pliers
Something to cut piano wire - a fine toothed hack saw or file,
or good quality side cutters
A Junior hack saw or razor saw
A good metal straight edge (steel rule)
Small hand drill, or possibly an electric one
You will need something to build on. Modelling tools are sharp and random cuts in the furniture can cause trouble. You will need something that is: (a) soft enough to push pins into yet still able to grip firmly. (b) absolutely flat and true; it is impossible to build flat wings on a curved surface.
Thick foam or cardboard will suffice initially, but will need replacing periodically. 'Sundealer' board from timber or DIY merchants is an ideal material, although its only available in 8' x 4' sheets and is quite expensive (find a friend to share it with?). Or you can stick pin board to 1/2" chipboard or MDF; again this will have to be changed from time to time as the pin board slowly disintegrates with use.
A very useful piece of equipment is a cutting mat (now called an art mat as it doesn't cut!) This prevents snapped knife blade tips and cuts on the dining room table. It will also extend the life of your building board.
Finally, you will need some pins. The more the better - but do ensure they are sharp and of good quality. The glass topped variety tend to shatter and become useless and very dangerous quite quickly.
You will also need adhesive and dope. This is discussed later.
OK. Next decision. What shall I build? . . .
CHOOSING A MODEL
The range is vast, so what to choose? This will largely depend on where you intend to fly; your flying site will dictate the size and type of model that is suitable. Here are some guidelines:
INDOORS : YOUR OWN LIVING ROOM: Either Living Room Stick (i.e. Butterfly and Junior), or various Parlor planes
SCHOOL HALL or LEISURE CENTRE: Any of the above, but here you can also fly medium duration i.e. Easy Bee (EZB) or Penny Plane; small scale on rubber power, C02 or electric, or small non scale models (from 8" to about 24" span depending on the size of the hall).
LARGE SPORTS HALL or STADIUM: Any of the above and even slightly larger, up to about 30" span. The larger the hall the longer the potential flight time and the wider the flying circle.
OUTDOORS : Very delicate,
light indoor duration models cannot be flown outside. This is also true of
some of the smaller, lighter scale models, except in absolutely still airs.
Almost any other kind of model, regardless of power, can be flown outside.
BUT, always remember, outdoors has no boundaries. Models can, and do, fly
away. Possible outdoor sites are: Your own garden, small playing fields, a
meadow or common, or large airfields ( look for organised model flying events
on these). Try to find a local club, they may have a flying site.
The secret of success lies in the choice of your first kit. Our advice is to go for a mid - sized, rubber powered non - scale high wing monoplane as your first model. West Wings Topaz is ideal for outdoors, as is their Sapphire which gives a more exciting performance while being just a little more difficult to trim and fly.
are: For duration (staying in the air for the longest possible time) the EZB
is a very good place to start. For scale models, go for a high wing monoplane
such as the Micro-X Cub or Fike E, or Pecks Lacey M10. For easy to build larger
models, the Aerographics Lacey or West Wings Puss Moth are both fine flyers.
A suitable model for absolute beginners is the Ikara Junior; easy to build,
in a reasonably large hall it can fly for well over a minute.
"I WANT TO BUILD A SPITFIRE." You will: build one and fly it ... but wait. If you want to succeed, don't make it your first model. As in real life, most low wing fighters are inherently unstable and therefore difficult to trim. So too are models with lots of wings and rigging and the very small fiddly ones, so steer clear until you have learnt your basic skills. High wing monoplanes are much easier to trim and fly and much more forgiving of the amateur builder. All pilots start on 'Trainers' - high wing monoplanes! There must be a reason for it!
STICKY STUFF : Having decided on your chosen model, remember that although most kits are complete, they will not include glues or dope (which is used to shrink and seal tissue type covering). Therefore here is a brief description of some of the glues available.
* UHU Hart. (The
new Balsa Cement) Specially formulated for balsa wood, but shrinks when drying
so is not suitable for very light structures.
* P.V.A. White wood glue. This is good for all wood, it can be diluted with water for small models, does not shrink but is slower to dry than Hart.
* Aliphatic Resin. Much like PVA but much faster drying, does not dry clear though. This type of glue is also available as "SuperPhatic" which is a capillary action glue like 'Superglue'.
* Superglue. (Cyanoacrylate). The thin type is for tacking purposes as it sets instantly and can bond most types of material together. The thicker type works the same way and can also fill small gaps. Both types are a little brittle for building whole models, but are excellent for repairs. The odourless variety can also be used on foam models, but be sure it says so on the bottle before using on your precious foam model. The smelly one melts foam!!
Warning! Cyano glues bond flesh instantly, handle with great care!
Also available for use with Cyano in a pump action spray is accelerator fluid which will set any cyano instantly. Once again, use with care.
* Two-Part Epoxy. Resin type glue with slow cure time, for use where a joint will be heavily stressed. For example, fixing undercarriage to wood on larger models.
* Balsa-loc. Heat activated glue used for covering models with tissue alternatives such as Airspan or Litespan.
All glues are heavy, so always use the absolute minimum necessary to make the joint. Follow the instructions carefully. if in doubt try and find an expert to help. For details on covering your model see page 15.
A BIT OF GEN ON RUBBER POWER by Peter Smart
With the emphasis on indoor scale.
It's funny old stuff rubber. It is in fact probably the earliest form of motive power to be applied to a model flying machine. That is if you ignore Leonardo's helicopter, and that wasn't a million miles away from the same principle.
Rubber sometimes suffers a bit of bad press. To the unknowing it is always referred to as "elastic", a substance of more use in maintaining the altitude of nether garments than aircraft. There is also the stigma of its association with the "beginners" model and the fact that those "beginners" always showed more interest in the glamorous internal combustion engines. But rubber is a wonderful material in many respects.
Let's go back to those beginners models and see where things began to go wrong. It often started with the manufacturer of the kit. Do you remember the old Flying Scale rubber models produced back in the 50's and 60's? How often did you ever see one of them really fly? The fault was not with the design, the fact that most of them are still obtainable today is proof of that. The reason for their almost non existent performance was down to the rubber provided in the kits. Indeed, one manufacturer was found to be supplying rubber rings sliced from old inner-tubes as a motive power. This would only take about fifty turns before it became completely solid, and in any case was so bulky that it could never be inserted through the nose of the model. Yes, you would have had to build the motor in before covering. Obviously a very poor option.
Back to basics. Let's see just what is required of a rubber motor. An average peanut model, with a wing span of 13", to be compteitive must be capable of a flight duration of at least a minute. The speed of the propellor on such a model is going to be in the order of 1500 rpm. That's why rubber models have big paddley propeller blades. The arithmetic is not difficult, the motor must be capable of taking at least 1500 turns. Obviously you won't get that many turns onto a short motor. Now that's often a surprise for the beginner who may be of the impression that the rubber has to be only as long as the distance between the rear peg and front hook..."so that the prop won't fall off!" Not so! The rubber loop can be up to twice as long as this to take the required number of turns.
Okay, you've got that
little indoor scale peanut (not the edible kind, its a class of model) ready
for its first trial. I'm not going to talk about trimming for a stable flight
pattern, I'm just going to talk about performance. Rubber can be provided
in a variety of sizes and there lies the greatest advantage , Its flexibility.
So we start off with our single loop of rubber, twice the length of peg to hook. Put some turns on it. (Buy a winder, it takes a long time to hand wind 500 turns,)
Now what happens on the flight? Unless you have been extremely lucky or skillful, one of two things. One, the model climbs rapidly and descends with a stationary prop. Two, the model cruises around at low altitude and refuses to climb, landing with a lot of turns still left on the motor.
Similar effects can be achieved by lengthening the first motor and shortening the latter. But remember, the shorter the motor the less turns it will take before breaking. A motor that is too long can also lead to bunching which can upset the trim and lead to more problems.
The problem here is
power. Too much in the first case; not enough in the second. Here's where
rubber is so clever. The amount of power that can be stored in the motor is
directly related to the cross-section. The bigger the rubber the more power:
in the first case a slightly thinner motor will provide a more realistic flight,
make up another motor, say 5 thousandths of an inch smaller in section. In
the second case go for a slightly thicker motor to initiate a climb.
The most important thing is to be prepared to experiment. You will never get the ultimate performance from any model from the first motor you choose, which is why we are lucky that SAMS cuts the stuff in such a wide range of sizes. Go on, treat yourself to a few packets either side of the recommended size, its not that expensive. In any case its a lot cheaper than one of those expensive IC motors and you won't upset anyone with the noise!
Finally, and most importantly, never use an unlubricated rubber motor. It will break long before you reach maximum turns and will only give a fraction of its potential power.
Where do you get rubber lube? Look under section 'A' in the SAMS catalogue.
More On Using Rubber Motors by Charlie Newman
This time with the emphasis on outdoor models.
The rubber motor is
the oldest and simplest way to power a model. It is also very confusing for
the novice, as the successful use of rubber depends on 'feel' and experience.
To understand rubber better, the novice should regard the size (cross section)
of the rubber as 'engine size' and its length as 'fuel tank size'. Thicker
rubber = more power. Longer rubber = longer power run. The novice should always
start with whatever rubber is specified for his/her model, thickness and length.
Do not be surprised if a thicker motor is needed as your model may be heavy.
Thickness simply means how wide the rubber strip is. This will be used in a minimum of a single loop. Frequently, motors will be 'multi-strand' - i.e. more that one loop. A 4 strand motor is simply on loop doubled. An 8 strand motor is made by folding it in half again. 6 strands are made by folding a loop into a 'Z'.
When making up a new
motor from strip, tie the ends with a reef knot whilst it is unlubricated.
Trim ends to about 1/4"/6mm. Now lubricate well either with proprietory
lubricant or your own mixture of soft soap and glycerine - 50/50. Washing
up liquid may be substituted for the soft soap. Place motor on one hand, apply
enough lubricant to wet it and rub the motor between your hands. If it seems
dry, add more lubricant. If too wet, draw motor between your finger and thumb
to remove excess. Too much is better than too little though. For indoor models,
it is generally better to use long, thin motors about 1 1/2 times the distance
between the hooks at least. The motor should be wound whilst stretched. Restrain
the model by the rear motor peg, detach prop and hook a winder on the rubber.
Pull the motor out to about twice its length and begin to wind, whilst still
continuing to move the winder away from the model. Try and aim to have doubled
the stretch at the same time as you have applied half the turns.
Now begin to move the winder progressively back, still winding, to the nose of the model. To detach winder, pinch the motor hard about 1/2"/12mm from the winder hook and let the last part unwind into a loop. Slip off the winder and re-attach the prop block and fit it to the fuselage the correct way up.
When you start to fly, observe the model. If it just flops, add more turns. It it still flops, it lacks torque ( rubber thickness) - re-motor with a loop of the same length but of slightly thicker rubber, repeating with even thicker rubber as necessary. If the model flies violently fast, then the rubber is too thick - change to a thinner motor. If the model flies well but for a short time, check that it is being fully wound. If it is, lengthen the motor whilst retaining the same thickness. This is an art which must be learnt and even experts will struggle at times - but that is the fascination of the free-flight rubber model.
Long thin motors may also be used outdoors, but for larger models they are commonly corded or 'pre-tensioned. This means that the motor has been made up into a rope that is roughly the same as the length between the hooks. This makes the motor more powerful and prevents it slopping about and spoiling the glide. Indoor models are trimmed for powered flights only.
The smallest multi-strand motor that can be corded is 4 strands. To cord a motor, it should be made up as a single loop and lubricated. Then slip one end over a suitable hook ( door handles are excellent) and stretch it out a little. Wind enough turns to achieve a row of single turns along its length, marking the centre of the motor with a tie of wool. Now remove the winder and fit the prop, with the motor still stretched. Do not let the prop turn. Slip a bobbin over the wool mark and fold the motor around it. The prop should now be by the hook (door handle). Remove the other end of the motor from the hook and attach it to the prop. Allow the prop to spin and the motor will knot itself up. Now check its length against the model. If it is still too long, unwind it and start again but adding more turns. Good luck.
ALTERNATIVE POWER FOR FREE FLIGHT MODELS
A well as rubber there are other means of powering small free-flight models. Internal combustion engines are noisy and often forbidden in public places, so let's ignore them. The popular alternatives are C02 motors which run on C02 compressed gas and electric motors which use small rechargable batteries. On the following pages we describe these types of motor and offer a guide as to which size or weight of model they are suitable for.
Many different types of electric power are available to the model flyer. We keep the Knight & Pridham range of motors which has been developed for use with free flight models. Reliable and extremely popular, these motors are inexpensive and easy to install.
KP01. Deceptivly simple to look at, it has a 4.25 to 1 gearbox and also includes the mounting plate and three 50 mah rechargeable cells built into the unit. The 01 weighs in at just 32 gms including the 5 1/2" moulded propeller, and can be used in models up to 4 1/2 ozs (120 gms). It comes supplied with 2 props, marking out template, mounting nuts and bolts, wire and jack plugs; together with installation and charging instructions.
The cells are charged from a rechargable 'Field' charger (F89) using 4 x 1.7 ah nicads in a neat moulded box that can be safely carried in the pocket. Charging takes up to 3 minutes for up to 45 seconds of motor run. The rpm being 4.400 at the beginning dropping to 3000 after 45 seconds on the standard propeller.
A mains charger (F90) is also available to charge the field charger and complete the package.
KP02 . Weight 58 gms including the propeller, this is suitable for models up to 9 oz (255 gms). Power comes from 3 x 110 mah cells mounted in a moulded case at the rear of the motor. Charging is done through the standard field charger, but for 6 minutes at 1 amp, or 2 amps for 3 minutes if your own charger is used.
As the balance point of a model can vary considerabley depending on the length of the nose or rear fuselage, both the KP01 and KP02 have been designed to have the battery pack removed, quite simply allowing the battery to be moved back towards the centre of gravity and so ensure a correct balance. A simple (really) soldering job is all that is required to do this.
The KP01 also has the advantage of an optional minute speed controller barely 9mm x 3mm, adjusted by a very small screwdriver. This can be of great benefit for lightweight models and is generally used for indoor flying.
KP 00 motor.
With an overall length of just 20.2mm and a width of only 10mm small enough
to go into some peanut models.A clever multi blade prop set is provided
which allows a 2,3 or 4 blade prop to be made. The motor wieghs in at about 4gms
Fan. KP also produce a clever little electric fan for use in EDF models
such as the Aerographics Hunter. Weight is just 35gms, 60 with the flight
cells and charging socket. The fan is 1 3/4" wide and long.
See Don Ross's (M80) and Bob Alberle Backyard Flying (M86) for lots more about electric systems. The fan is powered by 4 nicad cells so the F89 charger is not suitable, check the section F for the Mike Lock charger that will charge from one to eight cells.
RAPIER JET MOTORS
Imagine holding a
small model of a jet fighter in your hand. You are standing in a field where
a gentle wind stirs the long waving grass.
You light a short fuse and within seconds a tiny motor, a miniature jet splutters into life. A moments pause.. you launch firmly into the wind and the tiny aircraft spirals upwards tracing a white smoke trail across a blue sky. Magic!
Well, the weather and field are now perhaps the trickiest components of this idyllic scene. The rest is within the grasp of any competent modeller.. Because now we have Rapier!
Produced in the Czech Republic in a range of sizes and impulses, Rapiers are disposable rocket motors at last offering a standard of power and reliability undreamed of since the earliest days of Jetex.
The motors fit into a simple cardboard tube mounted, in the case of a scale model, usually in a trough but occasionally within the aircraft itself. A duration model will have the motor on an external pylon. The supplied fuse is inserted in the outlet and simply ignited with slow fuse or match
The smallest motor, the L1 will power models up to 8" or 9" in span while the most popular motor, the L2 take the size range up to about 13". By far the best way to make a start in this branch of free flight is with one of the superb range of kits available from Aerographics that you will find in this catalogue. The Bell XS-1, Me 163 Komet, FW Flitzer, and the BAC Lightning which has even flown with two motors! This exciting range is expanding continually.
Forget those amazing £1000 turbo jets.. This is the way to jet away for a minimum of expense... with a maximum of fun. Because that's what its all about.
Rapier L1, L2 /L2HP & L3
Richard Crossley launches his Bell X1-A design based on the Bell XS-1 kit
for another successful flight in Norfolk.
Richard designed the Aero-graphics Flitzer below, the Bell XS-1 and the Komet kits.
Aerographics Fw226 Flitzer gliding back after another flight on Rapier L2
The Jet-X system comprises an aluminium can with a seperate lid held on by a strong spring clip with a fibre washer to complete the seal. The cap is removed and a suitable number of fuel pellets placed inside. A small length of fuse is introduced through the jet hole in the cap to make contact with the fuel when the cap is replaced. The motor is held in place under the model by a spring clip. Once the fuse is lit you wait for ignition and then launch the model. After the flight, the can is carefully cleaned out and the nozzle reamed if necessary. Before loading the next charge a close inspection of the sealing washer is needed to ensure a tight seal for the next motor run. 3 sizes of Jet-X motor are currently available. The Atom 35 is for models of about 12". The 50 is for most of our kits. The 100 is for models up to about 20".
Covering Your Model
of the most common questions we are asked: How do I cover the airframe?
Firstly let's decide what kind of model it is. If its microfilm, then all the 'how-to's are covered in Lew Gitlow's excellent book Indoor Flying Models (M72)
Many outdoor models are now covered with polyester film such as Litespan or Airspan. These products are supplied with instructions with each sheet, the only tips we can offer are to point out the grain runs along the length of the sheet and if covering a wing, the grain should run from tip to root and not from leading edge to trailing edge. Also, stick rigidly to the recommended iron temperature settings given on the instruction sheets as even the slightest overheating will drastically affect the films ability to remain taut.
Tissue covering This
is still by far the most common material used for small indoor and outdoor
models. There are several types of tissue available of which the 'Jap' is
the lightest and easiest to use. The following method will work for most tissues
and is based on Doug Mchard's famous article in Flying Scale Models of WW2
and now reproduced in Doug' excellent little booklet Building and Finishing
flying model aircraft (M76)
Having made your airframe and decided on which colour tissue you are going to use (remember, the closer to the final colour to start with the less colour you will need to apply later: colour = weight), carefully sand down the entire airframe with fine sandpaper. For getting into the space between the ribs and stringers you can use the fine side of a finger nail board, be careful not to take off too much wood, you are only trying to remove the fuzz. Coat the surface of the wood where you want the tissue to adhere with sanding sealer. Allow to dry. Sand carefully with very fine sandpaper, just enough to remove the fuzz. Apply a second coat of sanding sealer and allow to dry. Sand again. Now apply a coat of very thin dope.
Cut your tissue panels slightly larger than required ( to allow for trimming later) and place over the area you want it to stick to. For the wing, dip a fine brush into the dope thinner and 'tack' the leading edge root corner (thats the front of the wing nearest the fuselage) allow to dry. Now pull the tissue very carefully to the opposite trailing edge corner, tack again. Pull the trailing edge root into place and tack, and finally do the same with leading edge tip. Allow to dry. Carefully flood through the tissue with thinners along all the surfaces previously coated with sanding sealer and dope. Allow to dry. When covering the fuselage remember that it dosn't all have to be in one piece, real aeroplanes are made up of a mass of different panels. Follow the same method as for the wing, cut the panel slightly over size, lay it in position and flood through with thinners. When you are finished, allow to dry completely. Trim off any excess tissue.
If you are brave you can now sand again with VERY fine sandpaper to remove the slight fuzz the tissue leaves. Mist or steam with fine water droplets to shrink the tissue prior to doping. Be carefull not to put too much water on the model, just enough to take out the wrinkles. If the model is only to be flown indoors then this is enough, dope adds weight. For outdoor flying read on.
Finally, why use the dope method rather than dilute pva or wallpaper paste? Its easy. should (or should that be ' when' ) you have a crash with your model you will want to be able to get the tissue off the damaged area to both repair the wood and replace the covering. Simply flood through the tissue with neat thinners and you can peel it off with ease. If you use glue, you can't!
Dope has been used since flying began; it not only makes the covering go stiff for a good flying surface but also proofs the craft against water and you know what happens to wood if it is exposed to water for a long period. To begin with, using a glass or tin container make up the mixture you want of dope and thinners. Many kit makers offer suggestions as to the strength. There is no hard and fast rule, but as a guide, remember the more you use the heavier the model and the stronger the mixture the harder the dope will shrink! Dope can be applied either with a camel hair brush (very soft) or by spraying with an airbrush.
Warning. Dope gives off a heavy vapour; too much is not good for you. Always have the window open or use a ventilated space to work in. Don't go on too long, better to work in stages than to end up on the floor.
We suggest that 25
to 35% in 2 coats is probably fine for small models of up to about 30",
and that up to 50% dope can be used for larger models.
Having clear doped the tissue and allowed it to dry , you can now brush, or even better still, spray any colours onto the model. Remember, you have taken a lot of trouble to get to this stage, don't spoil it by rushing the finish. If you are new to spraying, make up a panel of tissue on a frame and experiment with the airbrush until you are happy you won't spoil the model. Remember, the paint tin weighs nowt, its the contents you are putting on the model. Here is a special tip Doug gave me years ago. Allow your can of paint to stand long enough (can take days) for all the colour to drop to the bottom leaving the carrier liquid on top. Very carefully pour off 50% of the carrier liquid before stirring the paint. This method gives a much denser coverage with less weight. Now, another tip from Richard Crossley. If you are using an airbrush, thin your paint, be it cellulose or enamel, with cellulose thinners. This blends the paint more smoothly than enamel (white spirit) thinner. Spend time masking off parts you don't want the paint to touch.
Glossary of Terms
Aerofoil - Cross section
shape of a wing or tailplane which produces lift or downforce in the airflow.
Aileron - Moveable control surfaces located on the trailing edge of a wing, which move up or down to control the aircraft in the lateral or roll axis.
Airframe - Skeleton (or bones) of the model before being covered.
Airscrew - Propeller:
So called because of the action of the blades in motion. It screws or pushes
the model through the air.
Angle of Incidence - The angle between the the datum ( or rigging ) line and the wing. The datum line is a line drawn through the centre of the fuselage from front to rear. The incidence is the difference between the horizontal
angle of the datum and the horizontal angle of the wing.
Balance Point - Point from which an aircraft can be suspended and remain in a horizontal attitude. Not the same as CG.
Centre of Gravity (CG) - The point where the weight of the model is centred, usually about one third of the wing chord.
Chord - The width of the wing or tailplane measured from the leading to the trailing edge.
Dethermaliser - Often
called a DT is a device, sometimes clockwork or a burning fuse, which is set
to tip up the tailplane of a model which spoils the flight trim
and brings it down in a controlled fashion.
Dihedral - Angle at which the wings are attached to the fuselage or each other,
wing tips higher than the wing roots, to give some positive
lateral stability to the wing.
Downthrust - The angle of the propeller downwards to offset the tendency of a model
to climb to steeply and stall when under power.
Drag - Resistance caused by the model passing through the air.
Elevator - The rear
moving part of the tailplane which controls the models climb or
Fin - Fixed vertical surface part of the tailplane which controls dirctional
Former - Sheetwood component which forms the fuselage section at intervals from front to
back, also provides location for stringers or longerons.
Fuselage - The body of an aircraft to which the wings and tailplane are attached.
HLG - Hand Launch Glider.
Leading Edge - Front edge of the wing.
Lift - Upward force of formed by the action of the airstream over the flying surfaces.
Ornithopter - A flying machine obtaining both its lift and propulsion from flapping wings.
Pitch - Rotation about
the lateral axis or wing span centre line of an aircraft. The nose up
or nose down attitude, initiated or stopped by the use of the elevator.
Rib - Sheet part of the wing or tailplane which form the shape of the airfoil surface.
ROG - Rise off ground.
ROW - Rise off water
Rudder - Moving part usually attaced to the fin, which alters the left or right turn of a model.
Span - Distance between wingtip and wingtip.
Sidethrust - The fixed
angle of the propeller sideways to counter the torque effect from
the motor when under
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Please note. Except for the Handbook, we only accept credit cards for orders above £5.00.
We are usually open 5 days a week 9am to 6pm
Leave a message if you get the answering machine, we will call back as soon as we can.
Do call by if you want, but, be sure to make an appointment first
| Last Revision:
November 18th 2007